Listening Log – [Pt. II- Proj. 1]- Hector Berlioz’ ‘Harold en Italie’ Symphonie en quatre parties avec un Alto principal, Op. 16
Hector Berlioz’ ‘Harold en Italie’ Symphonie en quatre parties avec un Alto principal, Op. 16 (1834) In October 2019 Listened (streaming) to digital audio CD: ‘Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique/Harold en Italie/Overtures’. (1999) Label: Double Forte. Conductors: Leonard Bernstein (Conductor), Andre Previn (Conductor). Performer: Donald McInnes Orchestra: French National Orchestra, London Symphony Orchestra.
Harold en Italie, Symphonie en quatre parties avec un Alto principal, Op. 16. H 68 (1834) by Hector Berlioz (1803-1869)
‘Harold en Italie’ is a programmatic symphony in four movements.
- I. Harold aux montagnes
- II. Marche des pélerins
- III. Sérénade
- IV. Orgie de brigands
‘Harold en Italie’ borrows Lord Byron’s literary device of describing the ‘poetic memories’ of a traveling hero in Byron’s poem ‘Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage’. However, the journey is Hector Berlioz’ own whilst traveling in the Abruzzi region in Italy and being inspired by the landscape there.
‘My intention was to write a series of orchestral scenes, in which the solo viola would be involved as a more or less active participant while retaining its own character. By placing it among the poetic memories formed from my wanderings in the Abruzzi, I wanted to make the viola a kind of melancholy dreamer in the manner of Byron’s Childe-Harold. Hence the title of the symphony: Harold in Italy...’ (Berlioz, x)
I think it very effectively conjures up the landscape described in the subtitles of the four movements. The first movement which depicts Harold’s mountain stay is suitably pastoral and charming with buoyant, rhythmic and loud tutti sections and crescendos interspersed with a slow and melodic viola solo.
It is indeed the viola solo which gave rise to the piece, originally commissioned by Paganini as a way to show off his new viola.
Quoting again from Herlioz’ autobiography; ‘… Paganini came to see me. “I have a wonderful viola, he said, a superb Stradivarius instrument, which I would like to play in public. But I have no suitable music. Would you like to write a solo for viola?’. (Berlioz, x)
However, after hearing initial sketches for the first movement Paganini decided the part would not sufficiently show off his virtuosity or the technical ability of the Stradivarius viola. It is however the simple, yet beautifully effective viola solo which pricks my ears the most. I find the clarity of the slow notes set against the harp astonishingly atmospheric.
The effect of this simplicity is even more overpowering when set against the finale of the first movement which ends with a tempo increase doubling the time and superimposing two tempos on top of each other. This section has become famously difficult to conduct and get right and only works well as a construct if executed perfectly. This part of the construction I find the most extraordinary.